On this webpage you will find my solutions to the revised second edition of "Transport Phenomena" by Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot (BSL). Here is a link to the book's page on amazon.com. If you find my work useful, please consider making a donation. Thank you.

A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6 A.7
Exercise 1 Exercise 1 Exercise 1 Exercise 1 Exercise 1 Exercise 1 Exercise 1
Exercise 2 Exercise 2 Exercise 2 Exercise 2 Exercise 2 Exercise 2 Exercise 2
Exercise 3 Exercise 3 Exercise 3 Exercise 3 Exercise 3 Exercise 3
Exercise 4 Exercise 4 Exercise 4 Exercise 4 Exercise 4 Exercise 4
Exercise 5 Exercise 5 Exercise 5 Exercise 5 Exercise 5
Exercise 6 Exercise 6 Exercise 6
Exercise 7 Exercise 7
Exercise 8
Exercise 9
Exercise 10
Chapter 1: Viscosity and the Mechanisms of Momentum Transport
Problem 1A.1: Estimation of dense-gas viscosity Problem 1B.2: A fluid in a state of rigid rotation
Problem 1A.2: Estimation of the viscosity of methyl fluoride Problem 1B.3: Viscosity of suspensions
Problem 1A.3: Computation of the viscosities of gases at low density Problem 1C.1: Some consequences of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
Problem 1A.4: Gas-mixture viscosities at low density Problem 1C.2: The wall collision frequency
Problem 1A.5: Viscosities of chlorine-air mixtures at low density Problem 1C.3: Pressure of an ideal gas
Problem 1A.6: Estimation of liquid viscosity Problem 1D.1: Uniform rotation of a fluid
Problem 1A.7: Molecular velocity and mean free path Problem 1D.2: Force on a surface of arbitrary orientation
Problem 1B.1: Velocity profiles and the stress components
Chapter 2: Shell Momentum Balances and Velocity Distributions in Laminar Flow
Problem 2A.1: Thickness of a falling film Problem 2B.10: Incompressible flow in a slightly tapered tube
Problem 2A.2: Determination of capillary radius by flow measurement Problem 2B.11: The cone-and-plate viscometer
Problem 2A.3: Volume flow rate through an annulus Problem 2B.12: Flow of a fluid in a network of tubes
Problem 2A.4: Loss of catalyst particles in stack gas Problem 2C.1: Performance of an electric dust collector
Problem 2B.1: Different choice of coordinates for the falling film problem Problem 2C.2: Residence time distribution in tube flow
Problem 2B.2: Alternate procedure for solving flow problems Problem 2C.3: Velocity distribution in a tube
Problem 2B.3: Laminar flow in a narrow slit Problem 2C.4: Falling-cylinder viscometer
Problem 2B.4: Laminar slit flow with a moving wall ("plane Couette flow") Problem 2C.5: Falling film on a conical surface
Problem 2B.5: Interrelation of slit and annulus formulas Problem 2C.6: Rotating cone pump
Problem 2B.6: Flow of a film on the outside of a circular tube Problem 2C.7: A simple rate-of-climb indicator
Problem 2B.7: Annular flow with inner cylinder moving axially Problem 2D.1: Rolling-ball viscometer
Problem 2B.8: Analysis of a capillary flowmeter Problem 2D.2: Drainage of liquids
Problem 2B.9: Low-density phenomena in compressible tube flow
Chapter 3: The Equations of Change for Isothermal Systems
Problem 3A.1: Torque required to turn a friction bearing Problem 3B.10: Radial flow between parallel disks
Problem 3A.2: Friction loss in bearings Problem 3B.11: Radial flow between two coaxial cylinders
Problem 3A.3: Effect of altitude on air pressure Problem 3B.12: Pressure distribution in incompressible fluids
Problem 3A.4: Viscosity determination with a rotating-cylinder viscometer Problem 3B.13: Flow of a fluid through a sudden contraction
Problem 3A.5: Fabrication of a parabolic mirror Problem 3B.14: Torricelli's equation for efflux from a tank
Problem 3A.6: Scale-up of an agitated tank Problem 3B.15: Shape of free surface in tangential annular flow
Problem 3A.7: Air entrainment in a draining tank Problem 3B.16: Flow in a slit with uniform cross flow
Problem 3B.1: Flow between coaxial cylinders and concentric spheres Problem 3C.1: Parallel-disk compression viscometer
Problem 3B.2: Laminar flow in a triangular duct Problem 3C.2: Normal stresses at solid surfaces for compressible fluids
Problem 3B.3: Laminar flow in a square duct Problem 3C.3: Deformation of a fluid line
Problem 3B.4: Creeping flow between two concentric spheres Problem 3C.4: Alternative methods of solving the Couette viscometer problem by use of angular momentum concepts
Problem 3B.5: Parallel-disk viscometer Problem 3C.5: Two-phase interfacial boundary conditions
Problem 3B.6: Circulating axial flow in an annulus Problem 3D.1: Derivation of the equations of change by integral theorems
Problem 3B.7: Momentum fluxes for creeping flow into a slot Problem 3D.2: The equation of change for vorticity
Problem 3B.8: Velocity distribution for creeping flow toward a slot Problem 3D.3: Alternate form of the equation of motion
Problem 3B.9: Slow transverse flow around a cylinder
Chapter 4: Velocity Distributions with More than One Independent Variable
Problem 4A.1: Time for attainment of steady state in tube flow Problem 4B.7: Vortex flow
Problem 4A.2: Velocity near a moving sphere Problem 4B.8: The flow field about a line source
Problem 4A.3: Construction of streamlines for the potential around a cylinder Problem 4B.9: Checking solutions to unsteady flow problems
Problem 4A.4: Comparison of exact and approximate profiles for flow along a flat plate Problem 4C.1: Laminar entrance flow in a slit
Problem 4A.5: Numerical demonstration of the von Kármán momentum balance Problem 4C.2: Torsional oscillatory viscometer
Problem 4A.6: Use of boundary-layer formulas Problem 4C.3: Darcy's equation for flow through porous media
Problem 4A.7: Entrance flow in conduits Problem 4C.4: Radial flow through a porous medium
Problem 4B.1: Flow of a fluid with a suddenly applied constant wall stress Problem 4D.1: Flow near an oscillating wall
Problem 4B.2: Flow near a wall suddenly set in motion (approximate solution) Problem 4D.2: Start-up of laminar flow in a circular tube
Problem 4B.3: Creeping flow around a spherical bubble Problem 4D.3: Flows in the disk-and-tube system
Problem 4B.4: Use of the vorticity equation Problem 4D.4: Unsteady annular flows
Problem 4B.5: Steady potential flow around a stationary sphere Problem 4D.5: Stream functions for three-dimensional flow
Problem 4B.6: Potential flow near a stagnation point
Chapter 5: Velocity Distributions in Turbulent Flow
Problem 5A.1: Pressure drop needed for laminar-turbulent transition Problem 5C.1: Two-dimensional turbulent jet
Problem 5A.2: Velocity distribution in turbulent pipe flow Problem 5C.2: Axial turbulent flow in an annulus
Problem 5B.1: Average flow velocity in turbulent tube flow Problem 5C.3: Instability in a simple mechanical system
Problem 5B.2: Mass flow rate in a turbulent circular jet Problem 5D.1: Derivation of the equation of change for the Reynolds stresses
Problem 5B.3: The eddy viscosity expression in the viscous sublayer Problem 5D.2: Kinetic energy of turbulence
Chapter 6: Interphase Transport in Isothermal Systems
Problem 6A.1: Pressure drop required for a pipe with fittings Problem 6B.3: Friction factor for laminar flow in a slit
Problem 6A.2: Pressure difference required for flow in pipe with elevation change Problem 6B.4: Friction factor for a rotating disk
Problem 6A.3: Flow rate for a given pressure drop Problem 6B.5: Turbulent flow in horizontal pipes
Problem 6A.4: Motion of a sphere in a liquid Problem 6B.6: Inadequacy of mean hydraulic radius for laminar flow
Problem 6A.5: Sphere diameter for a given terminal velocity Problem 6B.7: Falling sphere in Newton's drag-law region
Problem 6A.6: Estimation of void fraction of a packed column Problem 6B.8: Design of an experiment to verify the f vs. Re chart for spheres
Problem 6A.7: Estimation of pressure drops in annular flow Problem 6B.9: Friction factor for flow past an infinite cylinder
Problem 6A.8: Force on a water tower in a gale Problem 6C.1: Two-dimensional particle trajectories
Problem 6A.9: Flow of gas through a packed column Problem 6C.2: Wall effects for a sphere falling in a cylinder
Problem 6A.10: Determination of pipe diameter Problem 6C.3: Power input to an agitated tank
Problem 6B.1: Effect of error in friction factor calculations Problem 6D.1: Friction factor for a bubble in a clean liquid
Problem 6B.2: Friction factor for flow along a flat plate
Chapter 7: Macroscopic Balances for Isothermal Flow Systems
Problem 7A.1: Pressure rise in a sudden enlargement Problem 7B.5: Revised design of an air duct
Problem 7A.2: Pumping a hydrochloric acid solution Problem 7B.6: Multiple discharge into a common conduit
Problem 7A.3: Compressible gas flow in a cylindrical pipe Problem 7B.7: Inventory variations in a gas reservoir
Problem 7A.4: Incompressible flow in an annulus Problem 7B.8: Change in liquid height with time
Problem 7A.5: Force on a U-bend Problem 7B.9: Draining of a cylindrical tank with exit pipe
Problem 7A.6: Flow-rate calculation Problem 7B.10: Efflux time for draining a conical tank
Problem 7A.7: Evaluation of various velocity averages from Pitot tube data Problem 7B.11: Disintegration of wood chips
Problem 7B.1: Velocity averages from the 1/7 power law Problem 7B.12: Criterion for vapor-free flow in a pipeline
Problem 7B.2: Relation between force and viscous loss for flow in conduits of variable cross section Problem 7C.1: End corrections in tube viscometers
Problem 7B.3: Flow through a sudden enlargement Problem 7D.1: Derivation of the macroscopic balances from the equations of change
Problem 7B.4: Flow between two tanks
Chapter 8: Polymeric Liquids
Problem 8A.1: Flow of a polyisoprene solution in a pipe Problem 8B.8: Stress relaxation after cessation of shear flow
Problem 8A.2: Pumping of a polyethylene oxide solution Problem 8B.9: Draining of a tank with an exit pipe
Problem 8B.1: Flow of a polymeric film Problem 8B.10: The Giesekus model
Problem 8B.2: Power law flow in a narrow slit Problem 8C.1: The cone-and-plate viscometer
Problem 8B.3: Non-Newtonian flow in an annulus Problem 8C.2: Squeezing flow between parallel disks
Problem 8B.4: Flow of a polymeric liquid in a tapered tube Problem 8C.3: Verification of Giesekus viscosity function
Problem 8B.5: Slit flow of a Bingham fluid Problem 8C.4: Tube Flow for the Oldroyd 6-Constant Model
Problem 8B.6: Derivation of the Buckingham-Reiner equation Problem 8C.5: Chain Models with Rigid-Rod Connectors
Problem 8B.7: The complex-viscosity components for the Jeffreys fluid
Chapter 9: Thermal Conductivity and the Mechanisms of Energy Transport
Problem 9A.1: Prediction of thermal conductivities of gases at low density Problem 9A.8: Thermal conductivity and Prandtl number of a polyatomic gas
Problem 9A.2: Computation of the Prandtl numbers for gases at low density Problem 9A.9: Thermal conductivity of gaseous chlorine
Problem 9A.3: Estimation of the thermal conductivity of a dense gas Problem 9A.10: Thermal conductivity of chlorine-air mixtures
Problem 9A.4: Prediction of the thermal conductivity of a gas mixture Problem 9A.11: Thermal conductivity of quartz sand
Problem 9A.5: Estimation of the thermal conductivity of a pure liquid Problem 9A.12: Calculation of molecular diameters from transport properties
Problem 9A.6: Calculation of the Lorenz number Problem 9C.1: Enskog theory for dense gases
Problem 9A.7: Corroboration of the Wiedemann-Franz-Lorenz law
Chapter 10: Shell Energy Balances and Temperature Distributions in Solids and Laminar Flow
Problem 10A.1: Heat loss from an insulated pipe Problem 10B.9: Plug flow with forced-convection heat transfer
Problem 10A.2: Heat loss from a rectangular fin Problem 10B.10: Free convection in an annulus of finite height
Problem 10A.3: Maximum temperature in a lubricant Problem 10B.11: Free convection with temperature-dependent viscosity
Problem 10A.4: Current-carrying capacity of a wire Problem 10B.12: Heat conduction with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity
Problem 10A.5: Free convection velocity Problem 10B.13: Flow reactor with exponentially temperature-dependent source
Problem 10A.6: Insulating power of a wall Problem 10B.14: Evaporation loss from an oxygen tank
Problem 10A.7: Viscous heating in a ball-point pen Problem 10B.15: Radial temperature gradients in an annular chemical reactor
Problem 10B.1: Heat conduction from a sphere to a stagnant fluid Problem 10B.16: Temperature distribution in a hot-wire anemometer
Problem 10B.2: Viscous heating in slit flow Problem 10B.17: Non-Newtonian flow with forced-convection heat transfer
Problem 10B.3: Heat conduction in a nuclear fuel rod assembly Problem 10B.18: Reactor temperature profiles with axial heat flux
Problem 10B.4: Heat conduction in an annulus Problem 10C.1: Heating of an electric wire with temperature-dependent electrical and thermal conductivity
Problem 10B.5: Viscous heat generation in a polymer melt Problem 10C.2: Viscous heating with temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity
Problem 10B.6: Insulation thickness for a furnace wall Problem 10C.3: Viscous heating in a cone-and-plate viscometer
Problem 10B.7: Forced-convection heat transfer in flow between parallel plates Problem 10D.1: Heat loss from a circular fin
Problem 10B.8: Electrical heating of a pipe Problem 10D.2: Duct flow with constant wall heat flux and arbitrary velocity distribution
Chapter 11: The Equations of Change for Nonisothermal Systems
Problem 11A.1: Temperature in a friction bearing Problem 11B.10: Freezing of a spherical drop
Problem 11A.2: Viscosity variation and velocity gradients in a nonisothermal film Problem 11B.11: Temperature rise in a spherical catalyst pellet
Problem 11A.3: Transpiration cooling Problem 11B.12: Stability of an exothermic reaction system
Problem 11A.4: Free-convection heat loss from a vertical surface Problem 11B.13: Laminar annular flow with constant wall heat flux
Problem 11A.5: Velocity, temperature, and pressure changes in a shock wave Problem 11B.14: Unsteady-state heating of a sphere
Problem 11A.6: Adiabatic frictionless compression of an ideal gas Problem 11B.15: Dimensionless variables for free convection
Problem 11A.7: Effect of free convection on the insulating value of a horizontal air space Problem 11C.1: The speed of propagation of sound waves
Problem 11B.1: Adiabatic frictionless processes in an ideal gas Problem 11C.2: Free convection in a slot
Problem 11B.2: Viscous heating in laminar tube flow (asymptotic solutions) Problem 11C.3: Tangential annular flow of a highly viscous liquid
Problem 11B.3: Velocity distribution in a nonisothermal film Problem 11C.4: Heat conduction with variable thermal conductivity
Problem 11B.4: Heat conduction in a spherical shell Problem 11C.5: Effective thermal conductivity of a solid with spherical inclusions
Problem 11B.5: Axial heat conduction in a wire Problem 11C.6: Interfacial boundary conditions
Problem 11B.6: Transpiration cooling in a planar system Problem 11C.7: Effect of surface-tension gradients on a falling film
Problem 11B.7: Reduction of evaporation losses by transpiration Problem 11D.1: Equation of change for entropy
Problem 11B.8: Temperature distribution in an embedded sphere Problem 11D.2: Viscous heating in laminar tube flow
Problem 11B.9: Heat flow in a solid bounded by two conical surfaces Problem 11D.3: Derivation of the energy equation using integral theorems
Chapter 12: Temperature Distributions with More than One Independent Variable
Problem 12A.1: Unsteady-state heat conduction in an iron sphere Problem 12C.1: Product solutions for unsteady heat conduction in solids
Problem 12A.2: Comparison of the two slab solutions for short times Problem 12C.2: Heating of a semi-infinite slab with variable thermal conductivity
Problem 12A.3: Bonding with a thermosetting adhesive Problem 12C.3: Heat conduction with phase change (the Neumann-Stefan problem
Problem 12A.4: Quenching of a steel billet Problem 12C.4: Viscous heating in oscillatory flow
Problem 12A.5: Measurement of thermal diffusivity from amplitude of temperature oscillations Problem 12C.5: Solar heat penetration
Problem 12A.6: Forced convection from a sphere in creeping flow Problem 12C.6: Heat transfer in a falling non-Newtonian film
Problem 12B.1: Measurement of thermal diffusivity in an unsteady-state experiment Problem 12D.1: Unsteady-state heating of a slab (Laplace transform method)
Problem 12B.2: Two-dimensional forced convection with a line heat source Problem 12D.2: The Graetz-Nusselt problem
Problem 12B.3: Heating of a wall (constant wall heat flux) Problem 12D.3: The Graetz-Nusselt problem (asymptotic solution for large z)
Problem 12B.4: Heat transfer from a wall to a falling film (short contact time limit) Problem 12D.4: The Graetz-Nusselt problem (asymptotic solution for small z)
Problem 12B.5: Temperature in a slab with heat production Problem 12D.5: The Graetz problem for flow between parallel plates
Problem 12B.6: Forced convection in slow flow across a cylinder Problem 12D.6: The constant wall heat flux problem for parallel plates
Problem 12B.7: Timetable for roasting turkey Problem 12D.7: Asymptotic solution for small z for laminar tube flow with constant heat flux
Problem 12B.8: Use of asymptotic boundary layer solution Problem 12D.8: Forced conduction heat transfer from a flat plate (thermal boundary layer extends beyond the momentum boundary layer)
Problem 12B.9: Non-Newtonian heat transfer with constant wall heat flux (asymptotic solution for small axial distances)
Chapter 13: Temperature Distributions in Turbulent Flow
Problem 13B.1: Wall heat flux for turbulent flow in tubes (approximate) Problem 13C.1: Wall heat flux for turbulent flow between two parallel plates
Problem 13B.2: Wall heat flux for turbulent flow in tubes Problem 13D.1: The temperature profile for turbulent flow in tubes
Chapter 14: Interphase Transport in Nonisothermal Systems
Problem 14A.1: Average heat transfer coefficients Problem 14B.1: Limiting local Nusselt number for plug flow with constant heat flux
Problem 14A.2: Heat transfer in laminar tube flow Problem 14B.2: Local overall heat transfer coefficient
Problem 14A.3: Effect of flow rate on exit temperature from a heat exchanger Problem 14B.3: The hot-wire anemometer
Problem 14A.4: Local heat transfer coefficient for turbulent forced convection in a tube Problem 14B.4: Dimensional analysis
Problem 14A.5: Heat transfer from condensing vapors Problem 14B.5: Relation between hloc and hln
Problem 14A.6: Forced-convection heat transfer from an isolated sphere Problem 14B.6: Heat loss by free convection from a pipe
Problem 14A.7: Free convection heat transfer from an isolated sphere Problem 14C.1: The Nusselt expression for film condensation heat transfer coefficients
Problem 14A.8: Heat loss by free convection from a horizontal pipe immersed in a liquid Problem 14C.2: Heat transfer correlations for agitated tanks
Problem 14A.9: The ice-fisherman on Lake Mendota Problem 14D.1: Heat transfer from an oblate ellipsoid of revolution
Chapter 15: Macroscopic Balances for Nonisothermal Systems
Problem 15A.1: Heat transfer in double-pipe heat exchangers Problem 15B.6: Flow of a compressible fluid through a convergent-divergent nozzle
Problem 15A.2: Adiabatic flow of natural gas in a pipeline Problem 15B.7: Transient thermal behavior of a chromatographic device
Problem 15A.3: Mixing of two ideal-gas streams Problem 15B.8: Continuous heating of a slurry in an agitated tank
Problem 15A.4: Flow through a Venturi tube Problem 15C.1: Parallel-counterflow heat exchangers
Problem 15A.5: Free batch expansion of a compressible fluid Problem 15C.2: Discharge of air from a large tank
Problem 15A.6: Heating of air in a tube Problem 15C.3: Stagnation temperature
Problem 15A.7: Operation of a simple double-pipe heat exchanger Problem 15D.1: The macroscopic entropy balance
Problem 15B.1: Performance of a double-pipe heat exchanger with variable overall heat transfer coefficient Problem 15D.2: Derivation of the macroscopic energy balance
Problem 15B.2: Pressure drop in turbulent flow in a slightly converging tube Problem 15D.3: Operation of a heat-exchange device
Problem 15B.3: Steady flow of ideal gases in ducts of constant cross section Problem 15D.4: Discharge of a gas from a moving tank
Problem 15B.4: The Mach number in the mixing of two fluid streams Problem 15D.5: The classical Bernoulli equation
Problem 15B.5: Limiting discharge rates for Venturi meters
Chapter 16: Energy Transport by Radiation
Problem 16A.1: Approximation of a black body by a hole in a sphere Problem 16B.2: Radiation across an annular gap
Problem 16A.2: Efficiency of a solar engine Problem 16B.3: Multiple radiation shields
Problem 16A.3: Radiant heating requirement Problem 16B.4: Radiation and conduction through absorbing media
Problem 16A.4: Steady-state temperature of a roof Problem 16B.5: Cooling of a black body in vacuo
Problem 16A.5: Radiation errors in temperature measurements Problem 16B.6: Heat loss from an insulated pipe
Problem 16A.6: Surface temperatures on the Earth's moon Problem 16C.1: Integration of the view-factor integral for a pair of disks
Problem 16B.1: Reference temperature for effective emissivity Problem 16D.1: Heat loss from a wire carrying an electric current
Chapter 17: Diffusivity and the Mechanisms of Mass Transport
Problem 17A.1: Prediction of a low-density binary diffusivity Problem 17A.10: Estimation of liquid diffusivities
Problem 17A.2: Extrapolation of binary diffusivity to a very high temperature Problem 17B.1: Interrelation of composition variables in mixtures
Problem 17A.3: Self-diffusion in liquid mercury Problem 17B.2: Relations among fluxes in multicomponent systems
Problem 17A.4: Schmidt numbers for binary gas mixtures at low density Problem 17B.3: Relations between fluxes in binary systems
Problem 17A.5: Estimation of diffusivity for a binary mixture at high density Problem 17B.4: Equivalence of various forms of Fick's law for binary mixtures
Problem 17A.6: Diffusivity and Schmidt number for chlorine-air mixtures Problem 17C.1: Mass flux with respect to volume average velocity
Problem 17A.7: The Schmidt number for self-diffusion Problem 17C.2: Mass flux with respect to the solvent velocity
Problem 17A.8: Correction of high-density diffusivity for temperature Problem 17C.3: Determination of Lennard-Jones potential parameters from diffusivity data of a binary gas mixture
Problem 17A.9: Prediction of critical cDAB values
Chapter 18: Concentration Distributions in Solids and in Laminar Flow
Problem 18A.1: Evaporation Rate Problem 18B.11: Diffusion with fast second-order reaction
Problem 18A.2: Sublimation of small iodine spheres in still air Problem 18B.12: A sectioned-cell experiment for measuring gas-phase diffusivity
Problem 18A.3: Estimating the error in calculating the absorption rate Problem 18B.13: Tarnishing of metal surfaces
Problem 18A.4: Chlorine absorption in a falling film Problem 18B.14: Effectiveness factors for thin disks
Problem 18A.5: Measurement of diffusivity by the point-source method Problem 18B.15: Diffusion and heterogeneous reaction in a slender cylindrical tube with a closed end
Problem 18A.6: Determination of diffusivity for ether-air system Problem 18B.16: Effect of temperature and pressure on evaporation rate
Problem 18A.7: Mass flux from a circulating bubble Problem 18B.17: Reaction rates in large and small particles
Problem 18B.1: Diffusion through a stagnant film---alternate derivation Problem 18B.18: Evaporation rate for small mole fraction of the volatile liquid
Problem 18B.2: Error in neglecting the convection term in evaporation Problem 18B.19: Oxygen uptake by a bacterial aggregate
Problem 18B.3: Effect of mass transfer rate on the concentration profiles Problem 18C.1: Diffusion from a point source in a moving stream
Problem 18B.4: Absorption with chemical reaction Problem 18C.2: Diffusion and reaction in a partially impregnated catalyst
Problem 18B.5: Absorption of chlorine by cyclohexene Problem 18C.3: Absorption rate in a falling film
Problem 18B.6: Two-bulb experiment for measuring gas diffusivity---quasi-steady-state analysis Problem 18C.4: Estimation of the required length of an isothermal reactor
Problem 18B.7: Diffusion from a suspended droplet Problem 18C.5: Steady-state evaporation
Problem 18B.8: Method for separating helium from natural gas Problem 18D.1: Effectiveness factors for long cylinders
Problem 18B.9: Rate of leaching Problem 18D.2: Gas absorption in a falling film with chemical reaction
Problem 18B.10: Constant-evaporating mixtures